|Salmon parr in their first year of life. Parr marks
are the characteristic vertical black bars found on the sides
of juvenile salmonids. Parr that have spent one winter in fresh
water would be referred to as 1+ parr and so on, with the number
indicating the number of winters the fish has spent in freshwater.
|A category "A" licence allows
commercial fishing for salmon.
|The farming of aquatic
organisms in the marine environment or freshwater.
For further information see the Fisheries
and Oceans Canada web-site
As in Section 2 of the
Fishery Management Area Regulations
|A small fleshy protuberance at the base
of the pelvic fin of salmon and trout. It is used to distinguish
salmonids from other fishes with adipose fins like the smelts
such as eulachon.
|Biodiversity or biological diversity|
|The full range of
variety and variability within and among living
organisms and the ecological complexes in which they
occur; and encompasses diversity at the ecosystem,
community, species, and genetic levels and the
interaction of these components.
|The number of adult, upstream migrating salmon
that escape all U.S. fisheries and reach the Canada/U.S. border.
|Mature salmon from which
milt and roe are extracted to produce the next
generation of cultivated fish.
|The parental year for a group of returning salmon,
i.e. the calendar year when the majority of parents of these
|Incidental or unintentional catch of non-target stocks
and Protection: the section of Fisheries and Oceans
Canada primarily involved in enforcement.
|Coded-wire tag (CWT)|
|A small metal tag inserted into the nose
of a juvenile salmon (usually hatchery stock) prior to release
or migration to the ocean. The tag has encoded information that
indicates the origin and year of release of the fish.
|Communal commercial licence|
Issued to First Nations' organizations pursuant to the
Communal Fishing Licences Regulations for participation
in the general commercial fishery. Licences issued are
equivalent to the capacity of licences that have been
retired under the Aboriginal
Fisheries Strategy (AFS) Licence Retirement/Allocation
Issued to First Nations' organizations pursuant to the
Aboriginal Communal Fishing Licences Regulations to carry
on fishing and related activities. For further information
see the Fisheries
and Oceans Canada web-site.
maintenance, and rehabilitation of genetic diversity,
species, and ecosystems to sustain biodiversity and the
continuance of evolutionary and natural production
|Corkline to web distance|
|The shortest distance between the corkline
of a gill net and the webbing of a gill net.
|Catch per unit effort.
|Refers to situations where the stream has undercut
its bank through erosion. The habitat that is created is often
heavily used by large salmonids like cutthroat and rainbow trout.
|cf. Coded Wire Tagging
|A group of salmon at a
persistent spawning site or within a stream comprised of
individuals that are likely to breed with each other
(i.e., well mixed). A single population may include more
than one deme.
|The percentage of returning sockeye salmon run
that choose the eastern (inside) migration route around Vancouver
Island when returning to the Fraser River.
|A community of organisms
and their physical environment interacting as an
|Use of hatcheries, spawning channels, lake fertilization
or habitat restoration to increase the survival rate or production
of salmon at some stage of its life.
|The number of salmon returning to the spawning grounds.
In the absence of other sources of mortality, the total run-size
to a system is the total catch plus the total escapement.
|Expressed as a percentage, the proportion
of the total return of adult salmon in a given year that die
as a result of fishing activity.
|The local extinction of
|Salmon category "F" licences
are issued to First Nations' organizations pursuant to the Aboriginal
Communal Fishing Licences Regulations to allow fishing in
the commercial fishery for salmon.
|The number of eggs produced by a female salmon. This
term is usually indicates the average number of eggs produced
by females within a population or stock.
|Spawning grounds and
nursery, rearing, food supply, and migration areas on
which fish depend directly or indirectly to carry out
their life processes.
|A sudden increase in stream flow usually associated
with spring snowmelt but also used to refer to sudden increases
in stream flow after intense rainstorms.
|Salmon that have emerged
from gravel, completed yolk absorption, remained in
freshwater streams, and are less than a few months old.
|First Nations' fishery for food, social and ceremonial
use. See "communal licence" above.
|The variation at the
level of individual genes, and provides a mechanism for
populations to adapt to their ever-changing environment.
It refers to the differences in genetic make-up between
distinct species and to genetic variations within a
observed within a species. This variation may have a
genetic basis and/or may reflect habitat and
developmental differences expressed by the species.
|A rectangular net that does not enclose an area
of water, and is used to catch fish by enmeshing them.
A detailed description is available here.
|The treatment or cleanup
of fish habitat that has been altered, disrupted, or
degraded for the purpose of increasing its capability to
sustain fish production.
|A term that applies to a specific fishery and
is the proportion of fish vulnerable to the fishery that are
caught. The harvest rate is often confused with the exploitation
|Head water tributaries|
|Streams located where runoff begins.
Fisheries Management Plan
|Movement of salmon from the ocean to rivers and
|Landed or landing|
|The transfer of catch from a licensed vessel
to land (including docks and wharves).
|Report required by licence condition as notification
prior to landing or off-loading catch at the end of a fishing
|Managed spawning channels|
|Spawning channels where
the entry of spawners and spawning density is controlled.
|Mark - Recapture|
|A stock assessment program that has a primary
objective of estimating the size of populations. It usually
involves live-capturing salmon, marking or tagging them and
releasing them back into the water at one location. At a second
location, attempts are made to recapture both tagged and untagged
fish. Tag and recapture data are combined to generate the population
|Maximum sustainable yield (MSY)|
|The largest catch
(yield) that can be taken on average from a population
under existing environmental conditions. Catch will vary
annually due to variation in a population's survival
|Salmon category "N" licences
are party-based licences held by the Northern Native Fishing
Corporation for vessels designated by the corporation to fish
in the commercial fishery for salmon.
|Streams of origin, where spawning takes place.
An individual who has been designated as an observer
by the Regional Director General of Fisheries and Oceans
Canada for Pacific Region pursuant to section 39 of the
|Referring to that which takes place or exists on the
licensed fishing vessel as compared to on land.
|A small hole made in the gill-plate (operculum)
using a paper punch to indicate that the fish has been tagged.
This provides a check against tag loss. Opercular punches are
also used as tissue samples for DNA analysis.
|Movement of juvenile salmon from natal streams/lakes
to rivers and then the ocean.
|Salmon of the Pacific
Ocean regions, of which there are currently eleven
species recognized in the Genus Oncorhynchus. The
five species managed by DFO are sockeye (Oncorhynchus
nerka), pink (O. gorbuscha), chum (O. keta),
coho (O. kisutch) and chinook (O. tshawytscha).
Also in BC are steelhead (O. mykiss) and
cutthroat trout (O. clarki). The remaining
species include the masu (Asian distribution, O.
masou), Mexican golden trout (O. chrysogaster),
apache trout (O. apache), and gila trout (O.
gilae). These latter three species have limited
distributions in the western U.S. and northern Mexico.
|A vessel licensed to pack or transport commercially caught
Pacific Fisheries Resource
A group of interbreeding
organisms that is relatively isolated (i.e.
demographically uncoupled) from other such groups and is
likely adapted to the local habitat.
The maximum natural capability
of habitats to produce healthy fish, safe for human
consumption, or to support or produce aquatic organisms
on which fish depend.
Scientific Advice Review Committee
Commission: a joint Canada/U.S. commission established
under the Pacific
Salmon Treaty to oversee the implementation of the
Salmon Treaty: a treaty between Canada and the United
States concerning the conservation, management, restoration
and enhancement of pacific salmon resources.
|Number of adult returns or "recruits" per brood
year spawner. The average number of adult salmon produced from
one salmon spawner.
|The process whereby young fish are added to an
Departmental actions, policies
and programs affecting wild Pacific salmon directly or
indirectly through their habitats and ecosystems.
|Riparian zone and functions|
|The area of vegetation
near streams is known as the riparian zone. Riparian
function includes the interaction of hydrologic,
geomorphic, and biotic processes within the riparian
determine the character of the riparian zone and the influences exerted on the adjacent aquatic and terrestrial environments (e.g., temperature controls, shading, large woody debris).
|The number of salmon returning to a given system in
a given year.
|One of six areas on the Pacific coast. For salmon
seine there are two areas, Salmon Area A (north coast)
and Salmon Area B (south coast); for gill net there are
three areas, Salmon Area C (north coast), Salmon Area
D (portion of south coast) and Salmon Area E (portion
of south coast and the Fraser River); for troll there
are three areas, Salmon Area F (north coast), Salmon Area
G (WCVI and Queen Charlotte Strait), and Salmon Area H
(Johnstone and Georgia Strait).
|A fish belonging to Family Salmonidae, which includes
salmon, trouts, chars, whitefish and grayling.
|Includes a purse seine and a drag seine. Seine
nets are set in a circle around aggregations of fish;
the bottom edges of the net are then drawn together into
a "purse" or dragged along the bottom to prevent
escape of the fish. A detailed description is available
management approach that allows for the harvest of
surplus target species while aiming to minimize or
avoid the harvest of species or stocks of conservation
concern, or to release bycatch unharmed. For
further information see the Fisheries
and Oceans Canada web-site
|In all species of Pacific salmon but pinks,
the individual salmon produced in any one spawning year mature
and return to spawn in more than one subsequent year. All of
the fish that return from a spawning year (the brood year) are
collectively referred to as a cohort or the brood-year return.
A sibling forecast uses the first returns from a cohort to predict
the number of their siblings that will return in subsequent
years. Generally, the first year of return is dominated by males
and the last year of returns by females.
|A juvenile salmon that
has completed rearing in freshwater and migrates into
the marine environment. A smolt becomes physiologically
capable of balancing salt and water in the estuary and
ocean waters. Smolts vary in size and age depending on
the species of salmon.
|Scale patterns analysis: a stock identification technique
based on the premise that rearing areas can result in unique
scale patterns that allow point-of-origin assessments to be
|The number adult salmon that escape all
fisheries and other forms of mortality and make it to the spawning
|Acting responsibly to
conserve fish and their habitat for present and future
|A biologically discrete population. Fish species are
made up of an aggregate of stocks.
|The use of various
statistical and mathematical calculations to make
quantitative predictions about the reactions of fish
populations to alternative management choices.
|The migration of a
mature salmon into a stream other than that in which it
was born (i.e., its “home” stream). Straying is not
equivalent to gene flow (the exchange of genetic
material) unless the straying fish successfully
reproduces in the receiving stream. .
A portion of an Area, as in Section 2 of the
Fishery Management Area Regulations.
|A fishery that fills a need for food purposes.
In Canada, not to be confused with the First Nations fishery
which is restricted to First Nations' members. In Alaska, the
subsistence fishery involves both First Nations and non- First
Nations Alaskan residents.
The lines described in Schedule I of the
Fishery Management Area Regulations.
|Total allowable catch.
|A site where fish are tagged for later recapture.
cf. Mark -Recapture and Coded Wire Tagging
|Temperature variances found in a stream or streams.
|Total allowable catch or TAC|
|The amount of catch that may be
taken from a stock determined by analytical procedures to achieve
|Fishing with a hook or hooks attached to a line
that is towed through the water or from a vessel. Commercial
trollers employ hooks and lines that are suspended from
large poles extending from the fishing vessel. A detailed
description is available through the Internet here.
|Confirming any or all of the following activities:
estimating, weighing, and sampling all species, inspection of
fishing records and/or interviewing the vessel master.
|West Coast of Vancouver Island
|The line that connects the corkline of a gill net
with the webbing of a gill net, the length of the weedline is
also called the "corkline to web distance".
|Salmon are considered
"wild" if they have spent their entire life cycle in the
wild and originate from parents that were also produced
by natural spawning and continuously lived in the wild.
|Yukon River Salmon Agreement
Committee established pursuant to the UFA.|