Symbol of the Government of Canada

Common menu bar links

WarningThis page has been archived.

Archived Content

Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It has not been altered or updated after the date of archiving. Web pages that are archived on the Web are not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards. As per the Communications Policy of the Government of Canada, you can request alternate formats on the "Contact Us" page.

Herring Migratory Behaviour

<< Previous page

Clupeoids is a fish school simulator based on the Boids model developed by computer modeller, Craig Reynolds. These and other simulations of animal migration collective behaviours and numerical dominance have led to related research on Norwegian herring migrations (Huse et al. 2002) and further development of the adopted-migrant hypothesis, suggested during ongoing Atlantic herring investigations by McQuinn (1997). Additional evidence supporting this hypothesis is exhibited by examining Pacific herring spawn, catch, offshore distribution and tag-recapture data of British Columbia.

British Columbia (BC) herring stocks collapsed in the mid-1960's. Population recovery occurred rapidly in the early 1970's when an abundance of newly recruited, age 2+ (or age 3) spawners were observed reproducing in several "new" as well as in some "old" spawning sites from 1970 to 1984. These spawning distributions were seasonally observed for about 15 years or a period of time equivalent to approximately three generations of repeat spawners. During this period of population and distributional expansion, significant proportions of previously-favoured, spawning areas were no longer utilized on a regular basis.

In 1985, herring spawners began to retract to former historical spawning sites immediately after a relatively strong 1977 year-class (most evident in Haida Gwaii, northern and central coast regions of BC) passed through the annual commercial fisheries to become 8-year and older herring. Long-term episodic redistribution patterns, associated with population spikes or pulses are evident in other regions as well. Compare post and pre-1985 and post and pre-1970 spawner trends between Statistical Areas, SA 23 through to 27 (West Coast Vancouver Island) and in the Strait of Georgia (SA 14 to 20 and 28 and 29). These changes in distributional pattern or spatial diversity (Hay et al. 2009) are more evident when analyzed using smaller geographical units (e.g., kilometre segments within each herring section) and demonstrates how broad and fine scale, geographical trends can be masked by the static manner in which spawn, catch and tag-recapture data from assessment regions are grouped. Similar spatial trends have been identified in Pacific sardine and northern anchovy spawning behaviours (expanding, contracting or geographically shifting, spawn centroids) by examining patterns of pelagic egg distributions (Curtis 2004).


Pacific herring spawning distribution and abundance patterns in BC were also influenced (to a much lesser degree) by an abrupt market shift and harvest transformation from large and extensive reduction or fishmeal and fish oil fisheries (1937 to 1967) to considerably smaller and more intensive sac-roe fisheries (1972 to present). After a coast-wide, 4-year fishing closure (1968-1971) extensive, summer, fall and winter interception fisheries were replaced by smaller, terminal fisheries conducted on the spawning grounds during the early spring, spawning period. During the reduction fishery years and roe fishery years prior to 1975, few pre-spawning herring migrating in the fall from summer, feeding grounds off the southwest and northwest coasts of Vancouver Island were successful at reaching East mid-Vancouver Island (Statistical Area 14) inshore, spawning areas in the Strait of Georgia. Many of those potential spawners (e.g. those observed feeding along the perimeter edges of La Perouse or Big Bank on the west coast of Vancouver Island) were intercepted in Statistical Areas 17, 18, 19 and 21 (green line on graphs) along the southern Vancouver Island fall/winter, inshore migration routes during the 1940's, 1950's and 1960's. Other, more northerly feeding herring (e.g. those observed on the SE edge of the Goose Island bank and on the Cape Scott trawling grounds in Queen Charlotte Sound) were intercepted in Statistical Areas 12 and 13 along the northern Vancouver Island fall/winter migration routes. A solid, green line shown on each statistical area graph indicates these summer, fall and winter interception catches. Significant interceptions occurred throughout the reduction fishery period (1937-1967) with smaller harvests occurring during the first few years of the roe herring fishery (1972-1979). Astoundingly, most of the herring interception fisheries that occurred in the late 1950's and early 1960's often exceeded 50 to 60 percent of retrospectively estimated, regional stock sizes. During the years that immediately followed the early days of the roe fishery, further conservative harvest policies were implemented, including an adherence to a 20 percent harvest rate (commencing in 1983) of each regionally forecasted, pre-fishery spawning stock biomass and the adoption of regional cutoff's or critical biomass levels (25% of the unfished equilibrium) below which, recovery prospects were limited and harvest was not recommended (Stocker 1993). Subsequent, annual roe herring fishery quotas were lowered and were rarely exceeded by fishing overages after pool fisheries were implemented in 1998. Roe fishery closures were imposed in stock assessment regions (e.g. West coast of Vancouver Island in 1985, 1986, 1995-1997, 2001, 2006-2014; Strait of Georgia in 1986; Central Coast in 1979 and 2008-2013; Prince Rupert District in 1983 and Haida Gwaii in 1988, 1994-1997, 2001, 2003-2014). Smaller, spawn on kelp (SOK) fisheries and fall and winter interception fisheries for food, bait and special-use were also restricted since the early 1980's. Almost all roe herring fisheries that occurred after 1980 were confined to major, pre-spawning aggregations.

Map of BC - offshore feeding grounds and major, inshore spawning areas

British Columbia map depicting offshore feeding grounds
and major, inshore spawning areas.


Multi-seasonal, herring interceptions accomplished by Pacific cod, lingcod, turbot (arrowtooth flounder), brill (petrale sole), Pacific halibut, blackcod (sablefish), spiny dogfish, Chinook and coho salmon as well as by a few other predominantly and/or seasonally piscivorous fishes have also, declined significantly in the vicinities of inshore, coastal entrances and frequently-travelled, migratory corridors (from the early 1980's to 2001). Despite rapid schooling speeds and evasive manoeuvres, some herring can be particularly vulnerable to certain types of predators that forage on or near the sea floor during daylight hours. Other herring can be vulnerable to intense predation pressures by other pelagic fishes (e.g. Chinook and coho salmon) in numerous, nearshore feeding areas. The relative abundance and distributions of these piscivorous fishes with respect to that of herring have changed over time. A very different assemblage of "surface" predators are active at night or when herring are schooled or skimmered in near-surface or nearshore waters (e.g., harbour seals, sea lions, seabirds, dolphins, whales, spiny dogfish). While some predation opportunities have increased, many others have decreased, following long-term shifts in overall abundances and density-dependent schooling and migratory behaviours.

Pacific cod have declined significantly in the Strait of Georgia (and in northern and southern entranceways) since the 1950's. This formerly predominant, demersal piscivore benefited greatly from a geographically parallel life cycle with Pacific herring in terms of proximal spawning and feeding areas, overlapping migration patterns and spawn timing. Pacific cod stomachs were often stretched to the limit with herring prey from late September until well after demersal spawning in March (based upon daily monitoring and biological sampling at ports of landing). A prey shift to Pacific sandlance often occurred during the summer months at the southern entranceways (SA's 19, 20 and offshore areas 121 & 123) and northern entranceways (SA 11 & offshore area 111) to this British Columbia "inland sea". Ambush predators (e.g. lingcod) although more sedentary than Pacific cod, also functioned as very effective but never-the-less, serially dwindling and now static predators of Pacific herring. Short term, seasonal predation on young of the year (YOY) herring by shrinking populations of inshore rockfish species on nearshore reefs and "rock piles" has lessened as well. Similarly, more protracted predation on one and two-year-old, juvenile herring by pre-adult and adult coho and Chinook salmon has declined proportionately and concurrently in the Strait of Georgia. "Inside corridor" and "rearing area" predation on migratory Pacific herring has slowly decreased over the years, as intensive bottom trawl and hook and line fisheries gradually contributed to serial depletions of several local, inshore fish predator populations beginning in the 1940's and diminishing around 1985. Commercial fisheries targeting these efficient piscivores and several other affiliated, bottom and midwater fish and invertebrate species have incrementally shifted seaward (i.e. off West coast Vancouver Island, Queen Charlotte Sound and Haida Gwaii), over the years as local inshore fish stocks declined, technology advanced and economics or regulations dictated. Climate-driven and other anthropogenic contributors to some of these fish predator declines have also triggered and perhaps, accelerated ecosystem changes (e.g. seasonal and decadal-scale changes in nearshore, estuarine circulation patterns, timing of nutrient influxes, rising seawater temperatures, changes in offshore winds, currents, Eckman transport and upwelling, reduced zooplankton production, freshwater habitat degradation, industrial/urban development and marine contaminants). A moratorium on seal and sea lion hunting in 1972, during the latter part of this developmental period, has added further complexity to the present circumstances and is thought to have contributed to a gradual recovery and stabilization of pinniped populations in the Strait of Georgia (SoG). These marine mammals are known to feed primarily on abundant, resident Pacific hake (an estimated 60-120 thousand tonnes of resident hake inhabit the SoG) and secondarily, on near-surface or nearshore, migratory and resident Pacific herring schools, particularly at night (40-140 thousand tonnes of herring in the SoG).


Since the early 1980's, the much larger growing, offshore, migratory hake have temporarily and partially replaced the trophic niches of several inshore, herring predator populations (e.g., Pacific cod, Pacific Halibut, lingcod, Chinook and coho salmon) that formerly and abundantly inhabited feeding grounds in the northern and southern entranceways to the Strait of Georgia and in other bathymetric entrances and corridors (e.g. Cabbage Patch and Firing Range fishing grounds southwest of Ucluelet) that lead to protected, inshore areas (e.g. Barkley Sound). Unlike the smaller-sized, resident hake or walleye pollock that feed primarily on zooplankton in the Strait of Georgia and in connecting inlets or adjacent fjords, the much larger, offshore hake also feed opportunistically on juvenile herring as these small fish exit the Strait of Georgia (and other inshore areas) in the early fall. Additional predation occurs as pre-recruit and adult herring begin to aggregate on staging grounds prior to and during initial, inshore spawning migrations in the late summer (e.g. on or near the Swiftsure Bank in SA 21 in the southern entrance to the Strait of Georgia or on or near the Mexicana and Pine Island grounds in SA 11 located at the northern entrance to the Strait of Georgia). In recent years, large toothy, migratory Pacific hake have continued to penetrate northward into central and northern BC waters, each summer interacting, sometimes only briefly but more intensively with smaller, schooling forage fishes (e.g., Pacific sandlance, herring and eulachon). This offshore hake population, however, has been on a declining trend since the mid-1980's (declining from 6 to 1 million tonnes) and has recently experienced several, size or weight-at-age fluctuations (Hake Stock Status 2003 and Martell, CSAS 2009/021). Offshore, migratory hake typically spawn in southern waters off the coasts of California rather than in local waters and only a portion of the total stock enters BC waters. Evidence is mounting of a northward spawning/rearing shift (e.g. increased presence of juvenile, offshore hake in BC waters) amidst recent signs of small returns of some of the more traditional groundfish species (e.g. Pacific cod, lingcod) on west coast Vancouver Island (WCVI) trawling grounds.

The locations of fall and winter, inshore "holding" or stopover areas, utilized by migrating Pacific herring that enter the Strait of Georgia from the south, through Juan de Fuca Strait, have progressively changed over the years (from the early 1940's to the present). This shift has been in a northwest direction, primarily along the east coast of Vancouver Island towards SA 14 (i.e. starting from Swiftsure Bank, SA 21 "staging" areas off the lower west coast of Vancouver Island to areas off Victoria - Race Rocks and then onto Satellite Channel > Plumper Sound > Swanson Channel > Active Pass > Trincomali Channel > Porlier Pass > Pylades Channel > Northumberland Channel > Nanoose Bay and into the Qualicum-Hornby Island areas). A pattern of "movement and holding" from the adjacent deep water areas or "holes" to the shallower shorelines has persisted. In the 1970's, significant amounts of scarce, winter feed (e.g. zooplankton - including copepods, euphausiids and shrimp) would frequently concentrate in many of these holding areas (e.g. Swanson Channel) attracting large schools of plankti-piscivorous fishes (e.g. spiny dogfish, Pacific cod, walleye pollock and other groundfishes). More recently, evidence from juvenile herring surveys have suggested greater abundances of seasonal "feed" in northern as opposed to southern areas of the Strait of Georgia as indicated by herring stomach analyses and growth differences of juvenile herring and salmon captured in June and September during nightly, purse-seine sets (Haegele 1997 & 2005).

Concurrent and symmetric, inshore migration patterns have also been monitored at the northern entrance to the Strait of Georgia, starting at the Mexicana ground (an offshore herring "staging" area in SA 11, analogous in function to the Swiftsure Bank in SA 21) and subsequent southeast movement of herring through Queen Charlotte Strait (Pine Island grounds), Johnstone Strait (SA 12) and into the Deepwater Bay and Granite Bay fall and winter "holding" areas (SA 13). Northern entranceways to the Strait of Georgia (like those in the south) are well known, migratory bottlenecks (e.g. SA 11 & 12) where aggregations of large toothy, turbot (arrowtooth flounder) and other plankti-piscivorous fish (e.g. Pacific hake) continue to function as abundant predators of Pacific herring and Pacific sandlance in the late summer prior to migrants entering inshore corridors and holding areas. Although the general migratory routes have not changed significantly, timing intervals, proportions and patterns of movement and inshore "holding" have changed. A complex mosaic of predator-prey redistributions, species population dynamics and oceanographic regime shifts may be responsible for these slowly evolving patterns.

Summer, offshore feeding grounds utilized by planktivorous herring in the vicinity of La Perouse or Big Bank, off the southwest coast of Vancouver Island and offshore fishing areas near Goose Island Bank and Cook (or Cape Scott) Banks, off the northwest coast of Vancouver Island (in Queen Charlotte Sound) have been surveyed frequently during late summer and fall hydro-acoustic and mid-water trawl investigations. These DFO research surveys have quantified the opportunistic feeding behaviours of Pacific herring on seasonally abundant euphausiid (krill) and copepod populations (together, known as "red feed") since the early 1960's. Moreover, observations of "summer herring" have been repeatedly recorded on many other offshore, groundfish trawling grounds that have been fished and monitored year-round since the early 1940's. This observational data has been systematically collected under commercial, trawl logbook and at-sea observer programs. It seems apparent that large numbers of herring anchor tag recoveries from WCVI tag releases, particularly those released 20-40 miles offshore during 1980 (i.e. releases #64, #65, #66) and 1981 (releases #57, #94, #95, #97, #99) corroborate migration patterns, previously inferred indirectly by fishermen and fisheries researchers. Herring that travel the furthest distances to their respective, spawning areas (e.g. Hornby-Denman Island spawners) are often the first to depart offshore WCVI feeding grounds in the late summer, while those that migrate shorter distances (e.g. into Barkley Sound) linger longer in the often rich, feeding areas and consequently are last to commence spawning migrations. The degrees of exposure of pre-recruit herring to offshore hake predation on these feeding and staging grounds is significantly different between the two herring populations. Most interesting to observe is that West Coast Vancouver Island herring spawners appear to have declined in abundance since the mid-1970's while those entering the Strait of Georgia appear to have increased in biomass, peaking in the 2003 season. Recent herring abundance trends, however, in the Strait of Georgia (2005 to 2010) indicate a sharp decline of both migratory spawners and inshore, rearing juveniles. Other short-lived but considerably less abundant, pelagic fish species that spend their first few months of life in the lower Strait of Georgia (e.g. Fraser River larval & post-larval eulachon) have also experienced renewed population declines since 2004, suggesting that another ecological shift, has been in the works.

Coincidently, resident killer whales that frequent northern (i.e. those sighted in SA 12 & 13) and more particularly, those observed in southern (SA 18, 19, 20, 29 & US San Juan Islands) Vancouver Island/Strait of Georgia entranceways, have levelled off or declined during the summer and fall since the mid-1990's (see list of marine mammal research documents i.e. CSAS 2005/42 and CSAS 2006/072). Reasons for these declines are still uncertain but environmental contaminants, disturbance and food availability are suspected. Chinook salmon are the primary seasonal prey item of resident killer whales, just as Pacific herring are to Chinook salmon. The partially digested remains of identifiable herring comprise greater than 60% by weight of Chinook stomach contents and also predominate in coho salmon stomachs. Actual herring prey proportions are likely greater, if other unidentified but highly suspected, stomach components are considered. The eventual decline of these two, highly-valued salmon species in the Georgia Basin in the 1990's has sparked considerable concern and debate. The most notable scientific indicator or measure has been the steady decline in the marine survival of SoG coho (smolt-to-adult, as measured via coded-wire tagging) since the mid-1980's. The spatially, fractal nature of evolving ecosystems requires a much more comprehensive understanding of the tropho-dynamics of predominant species over extended periods of time, space and life cycle. This means factoring into each population dynamic equation, observed behavioural changes of single and multiple, interacting species. In that vein, it appears that long-term declines in the abundance of inshore, summer resident herring, combined with slowly changing seasonal distribution patterns of fall/winter, migratory adult and pre-recruit herring, may be directly (and/or indirectly) influencing behaviour in marine mammals such as resident killer whales, Pacific white-sided dolphins, sea lions and harbour seals.

Adopted-migrant tendencies are exhibited in herring movements throughout the 70 year time-series explaining, among other observations, Statistical Area 14 growing numerical dominance since 1975. Check out a Strait of Georgia Ecosystem Research Initiative (2008-2012) for recent and ongoing studies.

Resident herring and spawners that don't seem to "arrive on time"

Variations in Pacific herring life histories and dynamic migratory behaviours....

Underwater photo - Saanich Inlet summer herring

Saanich Inlet summer herring
(Underwater photo courtesy of the VENUS project, University of Victoria).

Some herring that spawn slightly earlier or later than the major, migratory schools and spawn at episodic locations (i.e. over successive or intermittent years at peripheral, rather than at core spawning sites) are sometimes referred to as "resident herring" or "home-steaders". These herring should not be confused with "first-time spawners" that often mature later in the spawning season and reproduce several weeks after the main body of older, highly migratory repeat spawners. Most "resident herring" are believed to reside in the same general inshore areas, year-round, for most of their lives and cannot be easily distinguished with certainty from other herring until reaching an older age. This life history variation is in sharp contrast to the considerably more abundant, age 0+ and 1+ inshore-rearing juveniles which have been observed leaving inshore areas (i.e. exiting the Strait of Georgia via Juan de Fuca or Johnstone Straits) in vast numbers, at the end of their first or second summers of life as well as in the late spring, to join adult migratory schools offshore. Some of these so-called "resident" or "local" herring stocks, when captured as spawners or pre-spawners, are characterized by smaller size-at-age or weight-at-age (slower growth), distinctive scale patterns (proportionately smaller, first and second year growth rings) and noticeable different gonosomatic indices (gonad-to-body, weight ratios). In addition to these life history variants, there are also other, slightly faster-growing, "local" herring stocks. These fish are able to colonize, periodically available but geographically confined, feeding areas created by local, oceanographic conditions (e.g. tidal, back eddies and/or underwater sills found near several BC coastal passages and narrows or at the entrances to major inlets or fjords). These herring schools likely migrate to and from other such inshore, feeding areas of similar characteristics, as suggested by tagging evidence. It is also possible that a few of these herring aggregations may be capable of joining the larger, faster-growing and highly migratory herring schools depending on the probability of encounter and the physiological synchrony of schools. Bio-samples of slow-growing, resident herring were first documented in Smith Inlet, BC in the early 1940's (Boughton 1941) and indicated little or no mixing between other, more typical, migratory herring examined from adjacent areas. Pacific herring bio-sampling programs that determine and monitor age-compositions, somatic growth, reproductive maturation schedules, sex ratios, proximate analyses (e.g. fat or lipid content), morphometrics, meristics, microsatellite DNA "stock" delineations and numerous tagging studies conducted by the Pacific Biological Station over the previous 65 years have provided ample evidence that "fish of a feather" do indeed, "school together".

A long-standing, untested hypothesis is that some of these early/late spawners could have been highly migratory, initially and may actually be comprised of immigrants or descendants of immigrants from other regions. It is quite possible, that a continuum of life histories exist, ranging from "fully migratory" to "entirely resident" and that not all variations may be easily identified or classified by spawn timing, feeding and spawning habitats or by indices of somatic growth (length-at-age or weight-at-age) and gonad maturity (GSI). Many fishermen and a few fisheries researchers (e.g. Pitcher et al. 1996, Mackinson 1999) have examined schooling behaviours at small spatial scales but school fragmentation and aggregation mechanisms at large spatial scales remains poorly understood. Hourston (1959) found evidence that herring captured and tagged from juvenile schools were characterized by straying rates that were significantly greater than those of adults. The proportion of belly tagging data, upon which the proposed hypothesis was based, however, (1951-1956 period of juvenile tagging) remains questionable due to high levels of uncertainty surrounding recovery locations, variable mortality rates and small numbers of juveniles tagged. During the past 100 years, BC herring schools have been widely recognized for sudden lapses in predictability, as well as for highly structured and determinant behaviours (e.g. diel vertical, plankton seeking migrations at the approaches of dusk or dawn). Recent and historical herring tagging studies have yet to reveal, specific migration patterns, other than confirming major, inshore-offshore migratory movements and associated levels of fidelity to large, geographical regions (Hay et al. 2001). Some of these limitations are due, in part, to the characteristics of Pacific herring fisheries which are currently, highly regulated, with very few predetermined harvest (or potential tag recovery) areas. In order to test resident-migratory hypotheses, an investigator would have to rely on past, belly tagging data (years: 1937 to 1967). This was a period in history when there were hundreds of wide-ranging, tag recovery (or fishery) locations, as oppose to the less than ten or so, herring roe fishing areas (or tag recovery sites) characteristic of the more recent, anchor (1979 to 1991) or coded-wire (1999 to 2004) tagging periods. Microsatellite DNA markers may also provide new evidence in this regard, in that DNA sampling from the much smaller food, bait, research and special-use herring fisheries (some potentially resident or local herring stocks), may corroborate the existence and nature of "resident herring" suspected in the more questionable, belly tagging data of a bygone era.

It seems that most large, migratory schools of adult herring are behaviourally-bound, at spawning time, for core spawning areas. Massive schools in Juan de Fuca Strait cyclically form nightly, sub-surface skimmers in the early fall which can be readily surveyed and echo-integrated, hydro-acoustically at strategic hours. These observations and subsequent herring catches a month or two later in the temporary "holding" or stopover areas off Victoria and in channels and passages among the lower Gulf Islands are evidence of gradual, inshore movements. These migrants, however, appear to move on fairly rigid, time-destination schedules with very little margins for delays or bioenergetic "miscalculations". On March 10, 1981, for example, a herring spawner tagged near Comox Bar in the Strait of Georgia was recovered in offshore waters (in Juan de Fuca Trench, 40 miles off the west coast of Vancouver Island) by the research vessel, G.B. Reed, 16 days later (Year 1981, Release #57) with a minimum travelled distance of approximately 240 miles (~average 15 miles/day). Rapid and immediate return to offshore waters to resume intensive feeding, after a 4-6 month period of pre-spawning maturation (or over-wintering) and gradual, inshore movement toward a core spawning area, is central to understanding the migratory strategy.

There is also growing evidence that Pacific herring which have been tagged and released together, remain together (Hay & McKinnell 2002). Smaller and less affiliated herring schools, however, by their very nature (i.e. physiological differences), are dispersally-bound at spawning time, for the heads of the more isolated or sheltered inlets and bays, many of which, are located in the Strait of Georgia (e.g. Bute and Saanich Inlets), Queen Charlotte Strait (e.g. Kingcome and Knight Inlets), central coast of BC (e.g. Douglas and Burke Channels), west coast of Vancouver Island (e.g. Quatsino Inlet), Haida Gwaii (e.g. Naden Harbour and Masset Inlet) and northern BC coast (e.g. Portland Inlets) - to name a few. These "minor stocks" appear to be on less rigid or less synchronized, reproductive schedules and many may become resident or closely resident year-round and not all, can be assumed to remain highly migratory. Gradually declining weight-at-age trends among adult herring bio-samples collected in BC over the last 40 years (Schweigert & Haist, CSAS 2007/002) may be a signal of increasing difficulties in maintaining the more dominant, migratory, life history strategy (offshore feeding <-> migratory movements <-> inshore spawning) while year-round, inshore predation (e.g. harbour seals) and limited food supply (e.g. inshore zooplankton production and availability) may be continuing to disfavour prolonged, inshore residency. - B. McCarter

See ichthyoplankton surveys for the distribution, abundance and dispersal of herring larvae.

References

Boughton, R.V. 1941. Slow-growing herring from Smith Inlet. Progress Report of the Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C. Fish. Res. Board Can.

Curtis, K.A. 2004. Fine scale spatial pattern of Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) and northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) eggs. Fisheries Oceanography 13:239.

Ford, J.K.B., G.M. Ellis, P.F. Olesiuk. 2005. Linking prey and population dynamics: did food limitation cause recent declines of 'resident' killer whales (Orcinus orca) in British Columbia? Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat 2005/042.

Haegele, C.W. 1997. The occurrence, abundance and food of juvenile herring and salmon in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia in 1990 to 1994 MS Rept. 2390.

Haegele, C.W., Hay, D.E., Schweigert, J.F., Armstrong, R.W., Hrabok, C., Thompson, M., and Daniel, K. 2005. Juvenile herring surveys in Johnstone and Georgia Straits - 1996 to 2003 Can. Data Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 1171:xi+243 p.

Hay, D.E., McCarter, P.B. and Daniel, K.S. 2001. Tagging of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) from 1936-1992: a review with comments on homing, geographic fidelity and straying CJFAS 58(7):1356-1370.

Hay, D.E. and McKinnell, S.M. 2002. Tagging along: association among Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) revealed by tagging. CJFAS 59(12):1960-1968.

Hourston, A. S. 1959. The relationship of the juvenile herring stocks in Barkley Sound to the major adult herring populations in British Columbia. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 16:309_320.

Mackinson, S. 1999. Variation in structure and distribution of pre-spawning Pacific herring shoals in two regions of British Columbia. J. Fish. Biol. 55 (Issue 5):972-989.

McQuinn, I.H. 1997. Metapopulations and the Atlantic Herring. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 7:297:329.

Pitcher, T.J., Misund, O.A., Ferno, A., Totland, B., and Melle, V. 1996. Adaptive behaviour of herring schools in the Norwegian Sea as revealed by high-resolution sonar. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 53: 449-452.

Schweigert, J. and Haist, V. 2007. Stock Assessment for British Columbia Herring in 2006 and Forecasts of the Potential Catch in 2007. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document 2007/002.

Stocker, M. 1993. Recent management of the British Columbia herring fishery, p. 267-293. In L.S. Parsons and W.H. Lear [eds.] Perspectives on Canadian marine fisheries management. Can. Bull. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 226.

Ware, D.M. and Tovey C. 2004. Pacific Herring Spawn Disappearance and Recolonization Events. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat 2004/008.

Summaries of research on population structure

Status Review of Pacific Herring (Clupea pallasi) in Puget Sound, Washington.

  • NOAA compilation of US and Canadian research into the population structure of Pacific herring.

Pacific Herring in the Pacific NW and the Pacific SW regions of the United States.

  • U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service compilation of American and Canadian research into the life histories and environmental requirements of Pacific herring.

Salmonid Tagging Programs: North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission (NPAFC Documents).

  • CWT, POST, thermal, genetic and other marking/stock identification papers.

<< Previous page