Lesson Plan - Salmonids in the classroom - Intermediate

Prescribed learning outcomes and curriculum organizers

English language arts (4 - 7)

  • comprehend and respond (strategies and skills)
  • comprehend and respond (comprehension)
  • communicate ideas and information (knowledge of language)
  • communicate ideas and information (composing and creating)
  • communicate ideas and information (presenting and valuing)
  • self and society (working together)
  • self and society (building community)

Social studies (4 - 6)

  • environment

Math (4 - 7)

  • statistics and Probability (data analysis)
  • shape and space (measurement)
  • patterns and relationships

Science 4

Applications of science

  • predict the results of an experiment
  • use appropriate tools to assist in observation
  • suggest possible interpretations for a set of observations
  • demonstrate an ability to recognize a valid interpretation of their results
  • present their interpretation of the results from an experiment
  • demonstrate responsible action when using the scientific information and skills they have developed
  • perform an experiment by following a procedure
  • use a variety of media to present information

Earth and space science

  • outline the importance of water for life
  • use the physical properties of water to describe or illustrate the water cycle
  • compare and contrast fresh water and salt water
  • describe human impacts on the Earth’s water system

Life science

  • relate the structure and behaviour of local organisms to their survival in local environments
  • discuss how changes in an organism's habitat can affect the survival of individual organisms and entire species
  • give examples of how the differences in individuals of the same species may give an advantage in surviving and reproducing
  • relate the growth and survival of organisms to a variety of conditions
  • describe the basic structure and function of the organs involved in digestion
  • compare and contrast the digestive systems of humans and various animals
  • describe the basic structure and function of the skeletal and muscular systems
  • compare and contrast the skeletal and muscular systems of humans and various animals
  • relate the life processes of an organism to its use of nutrients, water, and oxygen
  • describe the changing requirements of organisms as they grow
  • relate dietary habits and behaviour to an organism's health

Science 5

Applications of science

  • identify relevant variables in an experiment
  • identify and test a prediction
  • classify and order based on a set of keys and criteria
  • correctly state a hypothesis
  • differentiate between relevant and irrelevant information
  • use appropriate technologies to record, measure, save, and retrieve data
  • describe technologies that allow humans to extend their natural abilities
  • identify ways science is used responsibly in their communities

Life science

  • identify living resources in the local environment
  • describe how humans use B.C.'s living resources
  • describe the known and potential environmental impacts of using B.C.'s living resources
  • devise a strategy for sustaining a living resource
  • compare and contrast the respiratory and circulatory systems of humans with those of other animals
  • describe the relationship between the respiratory and circulatory systems
  • describe the basic structure and function of the organs in the sensory system
  • compare and contrast the sensory systems of humans with those of animals

Science 6

Applications of science

  • design a scientific test and evaluate its fairness
  • use instruments to make a variety of direct measurements
  • draw reasonable conclusions from experiments
  • organize and interpret information in simple tables and graphs
  • write clear, step-by-step instructions for conducting investigations, operating something, or following a procedure
  • compare ways of solving problems and finding explanations
  • demonstrate an appreciation of the importance of keeping honest and unbiased scientific records

Life science

  • classify plants and animals according to their internal and external features
  • develop common classification systems for organisms

Science 7

Applications of science

  • select an appropriate procedure for an investigation
  • select appropriate equipment and techniques to collect useful quantitative and qualitative information
  • investigate how models may be used to think about processes that cannot be observed directly
  • evaluate conclusions in relation to other evidence and sources
  • propose and compare options when making decisions or taking action
  • analyze costs and benefits of alternative scientific choices related to a community problem
  • take responsibility for the safe and accurate use of equipment and procedures
  • design an experiment involving two or more variables

Life science

  • describe all organisms in terms of their roles as part of interconnected food webs
  • describe ways in which species interact with each other
  • compare and contrast the major BC biogeoclimatic zones
  • determine the limiting factors for local ecosystems
  • outline the stages of recovery of a damaged local ecosystem
  • compare and contrast asexual and sexual reproduction in both plants and animals
  • describe the growth and changes in the development of an organism
  • outline factors that influence the length and quality of life

Physical science

  • use the pH scale to classify a variety of substances
  • identify chemical reactions that are important in the environment
  • assess the impact of chemical pollution on a local environment
  • collect, analyse, and interpret data on environmental quality

Support may be available

Contact your local Stream to Sea Education Coordinator or Community Advisor or phone 604-666-6614 to find out if an Education Coordinator in your area assists with this activity.

A teacher's resource for studying the biology, habitat and stewardship of pacific salmon

This learning resource, which focuses on salmon, biology, and stewardship, encourages an ecological approach, integrating science with social studies. Knowledge of salmon biology and habitat are viewed as building blocks toward a stewardship ethic. Stewardship means "making informed decisions and taking appropriate actions to protect and conserve all plants and animals who share our planet." And stewardship is one of the building blocks of a sustainable community where the economy, the environment and society are all taken into consideration when decisions are made. In short, this resource is about teaching kids how to "take care in our own lives so that salmon thrive!"

Whether small or large, class projects based on salmon have the potential to engage students in stewardship and sustainability. Studying a local creek, raising salmon in an incubator, or touring a watershed, are just a few of the projects that your class or school can undertake to make a difference for salmon and for us all!

Unit 1. Building knowledge: The salmon life cycle

SIC unit 1 image

Overview

This unit gives students an opportunity to:

Key concept

Students learn basic vocabulary necessary for studying salmon, and identify what they know, wonder and want to learn about salmon.

Vocabulary

Salmon, life cycle, habitat, waste

Unit 2. Water cycle, watershed and the salmon

SIC unit 2 image

Overview

This unit gives students an opportunity to:

Key concept

The water cycle, the watershed and ocean conditions form the broad context in which salmon ecology and human ecology take place. Each stage in the salmon's life cycle relies on parts of the aquatic ecosystem in which they live.

Vocabulary

Water cycle, hydrologic cycle, life cycle, habitat, watershed, transpiration, evaporation, ecology, atmosphere, lake, pond, stream, creek, river, deforestation, runoff, solar energy

Unit 3. Salmon habitat on-site studies

Overview

This unit gives students an opportunity to:

Key concept

Spawners travel upriver to their home stream or lakeshore, where they lay eggs and fertilize them to continue the life cycle. Salmon die after spawning but their bodies support the growth of the next generation.

Vocabulary

Genetic variation, genetic diversity, spawn, spawning ground, pollutant, redd, fertilize, carcass

Unit 4. The salmon spawner

Salmon spawner

Overview

This unit gives students an opportunity to:

Key concept

The egg contains a developing salmon. It needs certain elements in a protected environment to survive.

Vocabulary

Basic: redd, yolk, egg white, hatch, gravel, shell, stream, oxygen

Unit 5. Salmon eggs

Salmon eggs

Overview

This unit gives students an opportunity to:

Key concept

The egg contains a developing salmon. It is highly sensitive to disturbances in water quality, variations in temperature and pollution in its habitat.

Vocabulary

parts per million (ppm), concentration, molecule, oxygen, dissolved, impurities, pollutant, silt, Accumulated Thermal Unit (ATU), embryo, alevin

Unit 6. Salmon alevins

Salmon alevins

Overview

This unit gives students an opportunity to:

Key concept

Salmon alevins receive food from their yolk sac but remain highly sensitive to changes in their environment, especially changes in water quality and temperature.

Vocabulary

embryo, temperature, energy, cold-blooded, warm-blooded, micro-organism, yeast, respiration, sensitive, landfill, compost, leachate, yolk sac

Unit 7. Salmon fry

Salmon fry

Overview

This unit gives students an opportunity to:

Key concept

Fry swim and search in their stream or lake habitat for aquatic organisms they can eat for food. Fry exhibit characteristics that classify them as fish.

Vocabulary

swim bladder, insect, nymph, larva (plural: larvae), plankton, Parr marks, predator, imprinting, classification, species, aquatic organism, cold-blooded, chum, chinook, sockeye, pink, coho, rainbow trout, steelhead trout, cutthroat trout, buoyant, buoyancy

Unit 8. Salmon smolts

Salmon smolt

Overview

This unit gives students an opportunity to:

Key concept

Smolts migrate to the estuary and adapt to salt water conditions, but face increasing hazards in the estuary.

Vocabulary

Smolt, adapt, excrete, membranes, cells, estuary, eelgrass, nutrient, predator

Unit 9. Adult salmon

Salmon

Overview

This unit gives students an opportunity to:

Key concept

Adult salmon migrate through the ocean and then return to their home rivers. People fish for salmon in different ways and for different reasons (recreational, commercial, native fisheries).

Vocabulary

Salmonid, dichotomous key, species, isotherm, slime, scales, gills, gill rakers, milt, liver, bladder, kidney, lateral line, migration, mackerel, orca, plankton, herring, navigation, water pressure, salinity, magnetic direction, thermal, temperature, guidelines, principles, by-catch, zooplankton

Unit 10. Review: The salmon life cycle

SIC Unit 10 drawing

Overview

This unit gives students an opportunity to:

Key concept

The stages in a salmon's life form a cycle, but each stage has specific needs and is vulnerable to disruption and mortality.

Vocabulary

Natural environment, built environment