||Salmon parr in their first year of life. Parr marks are the
characteristic vertical black bars found on the sides of juvenile
salmonids. Parr that have spent one winter in fresh water would be
referred to as 1+ parr and so on, with the number indicating the
number of winters the fish has spent in freshwater.
||A category "A" licence allows commercial fishing for salmon.
Aboriginal Fisheries Strategy
||The farming of aquatic organisms in the
marine environment or freshwater. For further information see the
DFO Aquaculture site.
||As in Section 2 of the
Fishery Management Area Regulations
||A small fleshy protuberance at
the base of the pelvic fin of salmon and trout. It is used to
distinguish salmonids from other fishes with adipose fins like the
smelts such as eulachon.
|Biodiversity or biological diversity
||The full range
of variety and variability within and among living organisms and the
ecological complexes in which they occur; and encompasses diversity
at the ecosystem, community, species, and genetic levels and the
interaction of these components.
||The number of adult, upstream
migrating salmon that escape all U.S. fisheries and reach the
||Mature salmon from which milt and roe are
extracted to produce the next generation of cultivated fish.
||The parental year for a group of
returning salmon, i.e. the calendar year when the majority of
parents of these fish spawned.
||Incidental or unintentional catch of
non-target stocks or species.
||Conservation and Protection: the section of Fisheries and Oceans Canada
primarily involved in enforcement.
|Coded-wire tag (CWT)
||A small metal tag inserted into
the nose of a juvenile salmon (usually hatchery stock) prior to
release or migration to the ocean. The tag has encoded information
that indicates the origin and year of release of the fish.
|Communal commercial licence
||Issued to First Nations'
organizations pursuant to the
Aboriginal Communal Fishing Licences Regulations for participation in
the general commercial fishery. Licences issued are equivalent to the
capacity of licences that have been retired under the
Fisheries Strategy (AFS) Licence Retirement/Allocation Transfer Program.
||Issued to First Nations'
organizations pursuant to the Aboriginal Communal Fishing Licences
Regulations to carry on fishing and related activities. For further
information see the
Fisheries and Oceans
||The protection, maintenance, and
rehabilitation of genetic diversity, species, and ecosystems to
sustain biodiversity and the continuance of evolutionary and natural
|Corkline to web distance
||The shortest distance
between the corkline of a gill net and the webbing of a gill net.
||Catch per unit effort.
||Refers to situations where the stream has
undercut its bank through erosion. The habitat that is created is
often heavily used by large salmonids like cutthroat and rainbow
||See Coded Wire Tagging
||A group of salmon at a persistent
spawning site or within a stream comprised of individuals that are
likely to breed with each other (i.e., well mixed). A single
population may include more than one deme.
||The percentage of returning sockeye
salmon run that choose the eastern (inside) migration route around
Vancouver Island when returning to the Fraser River.
||A community of organisms and their
physical environment interacting as an ecological unit.
|| Use of hatcheries, spawning channels,
lake fertilization or habitat restoration to increase the survival
rate or production of salmon at some stage of its life.
||The number of salmon returning to the
spawning grounds. In the absence of other sources of mortality, the
total run-size to a system is the total catch plus the total
|| Expressed as a percentage, the
proportion of the total return of adult salmon in a given year that
die as a result of fishing activity.
||The local extinction of a species.
||Salmon category "F" licences are issued
to First Nations' organizations pursuant to the
Aboriginal Communal Fishing Licences Regulations to allow fishing in the
commercial fishery for salmon.
||The number of eggs produced by a female
salmon. This term is usually indicates the average number of eggs
produced by females within a population or stock.
||Spawning grounds and nursery,
rearing, food supply, and migration areas on which fish depend
directly or indirectly to carry out their life processes.
||A sudden increase in stream flow usually
associated with spring snowmelt but also used to refer to sudden
increases in stream flow after intense rainstorms.
|| Salmon that have emerged from gravel, completed
yolk absorption, remained in freshwater streams, and are less than a
few months old.
||First Nations' fishery for food, social and
ceremonial use. See "communal licence" above.
||The variation at the level of
individual genes, and provides a mechanism for populations to adapt
to their ever-changing environment. It refers to the differences in
genetic make-up between distinct species and to genetic variations
within a single species.
||Spatial variability observed
within a species. This variation may have a genetic basis and/or may
reflect habitat and developmental differences expressed by the
||A rectangular net that does not enclose an area of water, and is
used to catch fish by enmeshing them.
||The treatment or cleanup of fish
habitat that has been altered, disrupted, or degraded for the
purpose of increasing its capability to sustain fish production.
||A term that applies to a specific
fishery and is the proportion of fish vulnerable to the fishery that
are caught. The harvest rate is often confused with the exploitation
rate. Head water tributaries Streams located
where runoff begins.
Integrated Fisheries Management Plan
||Movement of salmon from the ocean to
rivers and spawning streams
|Landed or landing
||The transfer of catch from a
licensed vessel to land (including docks and wharves).
||Report required by licence condition as
notification prior to landing or off-loading catch at the end of a
|Managed spawning channels
||Spawning channels where
the entry of spawners and spawning density is controlled.
|Mark - Recapture
||A stock assessment program that has
a primary objective of estimating the size of populations. It
usually involves live-capturing salmon, marking or tagging them and
releasing them back into the water at one location. At a second
location, attempts are made to recapture both tagged and untagged
fish. Tag and recapture data are combined to generate the population
|Maximum sustainable yield (MSY)
||The largest catch
(yield) that can be taken on average from a population under
existing environmental conditions. Catch will vary annually due to
variation in a population's survival rate.
||Salmon category "N" licences are
party-based licences held by the Northern Native Fishing Corporation
for vessels designated by the corporation to fish in the commercial
fishery for salmon.
||Streams of origin, where spawning
||An individual who has been designated as an
observer by the Regional Director General of Fisheries and Oceans
Canada for Pacific Region pursuant to section 39 of the
||Referring to that which takes place or
exists on the licensed fishing vessel as compared to on land.
|| A small hole made in the gill-plate
(operculum) using a paper punch to indicate that the fish has been
tagged. This provides a check against tag loss. Opercular punches
are also used as tissue samples for DNA analysis.
|| Movement of juvenile salmon from
natal streams/lakes to rivers and then the ocean.
||Salmon of the Pacific Ocean regions,
of which there are currently eleven species recognized in the Genus
Oncorhynchus. The five species managed by DFO are sockeye
(Oncorhynchus nerka), pink (O. gorbuscha), chum (O. keta), coho (O.
kisutch) and chinook (O. tshawytscha). Also in BC are steelhead (O.
mykiss) and cutthroat trout (O. clarki). The remaining species
include the masu (Asian distribution, O. masou), Mexican golden
trout (O. chrysogaster), apache trout (O. apache), and gila trout
(O. gilae). These latter three species have limited distributions in
the western U.S. and northern Mexico.
||A vessel licensed to pack or transport
commercially caught fish.
Pacific Fisheries Resource Conservation Council
||A group of interbreeding organisms
that is relatively isolated (i.e. demographically uncoupled) from
other such groups and is likely adapted to the local habitat.
||The maximum natural capability
of habitats to produce healthy fish, safe for human consumption, or
to support or produce aquatic organisms on which fish depend.
||Pacific Scientific Advice Review Committee
Pacific Salmon Commission: a joint Canada/U.S. commission established
under the Pacific Salmon Treaty
to oversee the implementation of the treaty.
Pacific Salmon Treaty: a treaty between Canada and the United States
concerning the conservation, management, restoration and enhancement
of pacific salmon resources.
||Number of adult returns or "recruits" per brood
year spawner. The average number of adult salmon produced from one
||The process whereby young fish are added
to an adult population. Resource management
Departmental actions, policies and programs affecting wild Pacific
salmon directly or indirectly through their habitats and ecosystems.
|| Small rapid.
|Riparian zone and functions
||The area of vegetation
near streams is known as the riparian zone. Riparian function
includes the interaction of hydrologic, geomorphic, and biotic
processes within the riparian environment that determine the
character of the riparian zone and the influences exerted on the
adjacent aquatic and terrestrial environments (e.g., temperature
controls, shading, large woody debris).
||The number of salmon returning to a given
system in a given year.
||One of six areas on the Pacific coast.
For salmon seine there are two areas, Salmon Area A (north coast)
and Salmon Area B (south coast); for gill net there are three areas,
Salmon Area C (north coast), Salmon Area D (portion of south coast)
and Salmon Area E (portion of south coast and the Fraser River); for
troll there are three areas, Salmon Area F (north coast), Salmon
Area G (WCVI and Queen Charlotte Strait), and Salmon Area H
(Johnstone and Georgia Strait).
||A fish belonging to Family Salmonidae,
which includes salmon, trouts, chars, whitefish and grayling.
||Includes a purse seine and a drag seine. Seine nets are set in a
circle around aggregations of fish; the bottom edges of the net are
then drawn together into a "purse" or dragged along the bottom to
prevent escape of the fish.
||A conservation-based management approach that allows for the
harvest of surplus target species while aiming to minimize or avoid
the harvest of species or stocks of conservation concern, or to
release bycatch unharmed.
||In all species of Pacific salmon
but pinks, the individual salmon produced in any one spawning year
mature and return to spawn in more than one subsequent year. All of
the fish that return from a spawning year (the brood year) are
collectively referred to as a cohort or the brood-year return. A
sibling forecast uses the first returns from a cohort to predict the
number of their siblings that will return in subsequent years.
Generally, the first year of return is dominated by males and the
last year of returns by females.
||A juvenile salmon that has completed rearing
in freshwater and migrates into the marine environment. A smolt
becomes physiologically capable of balancing salt and water in the
estuary and ocean waters. Smolts vary in size and age depending on
the species of salmon.
||Scale patterns analysis: a stock identification
technique based on the premise that rearing areas can result in
unique scale patterns that allow point-of-origin assessments to be
||The number adult salmon that
escape all fisheries and other forms of mortality and make it to the
||Acting responsibly to conserve fish and
their habitat for present and future generations.
||A biologically discrete population. Fish
species are made up of an aggregate of stocks.
||The use of various statistical and
mathematical calculations to make quantitative predictions about the
reactions of fish populations to alternative management choices.
||The migration of a mature salmon into a
stream other than that in which it was born (i.e., its “home”
stream). Straying is not equivalent to gene flow (the exchange of
genetic material) unless the straying fish successfully reproduces
in the receiving stream.
||A portion of an Area, as in Section 2 of the
Fishery Management Area Regulations.
||A fishery that fills a need for
food purposes. In Canada, not to be confused with the First Nations
fishery which is restricted to First Nations' members. In Alaska,
the subsistence fishery involves both First Nations and non- First
Nations Alaskan residents.
||The lines described in Schedule I of the
Fishery Management Area Regulations.
||Total allowable catch.
||A site where fish are tagged for later
recapture. cf. Mark -Recapture and Coded Wire Tagging
||Temperature variances found in a
stream or streams.
|Total allowable catch or TAC
||The amount of catch
that may be taken from a stock determined by analytical procedures
to achieve management objectives.
||Fishing with a hook or hooks attached to a line that is towed
through the water or from a vessel. Commercial trollers employ hooks
and lines that are suspended from large poles extending from the
||Confirming any or all of the following
activities: estimating, weighing, and sampling all species,
inspection of fishing records and/or interviewing the vessel master.
||West Coast of Vancouver Island
||The line that connects the corkline of a
gill net with the webbing of a gill net, the length of the weedline
is also called the "corkline to web distance".
||Salmon are considered "wild" if they
have spent their entire life cycle in the wild and originate from
parents that were also produced by natural spawning and continuously
lived in the wild.
||Yukon River Salmon Agreement
Yukon Salmon Committee established pursuant to the UFA.