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Pacific Salmon - Glossary

0+ juveniles
Salmon parr in their first year of life. Parr marks are the characteristic vertical black bars found on the sides of juvenile salmonids. Parr that have spent one winter in fresh water would be referred to as 1+ parr and so on, with the number indicating the number of winters the fish has spent in freshwater.
"A" licence
A category "A" licence allows commercial fishing for salmon.
Aboriginal Fisheries Strategy
The farming of aquatic organisms in the marine environment or freshwater. For further information see the DFO Aquaculture site.
As in Section 2 of the Pacific Fishery Management Area Regulations
Axillary appendage
A small fleshy protuberance at the base of the pelvic fin of salmon and trout. It is used to distinguish salmonids from other fishes with adipose fins like the smelts such as eulachon.
Biodiversity or biological diversity
The full range of variety and variability within and among living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they occur; and encompasses diversity at the ecosystem, community, species, and genetic levels and the interaction of these components.
Border escapement
The number of adult, upstream migrating salmon that escape all U.S. fisheries and reach the Canada/U.S. border.
Mature salmon from which milt and roe are extracted to produce the next generation of cultivated fish.
Brood year
The parental year for a group of returning salmon, i.e. the calendar year when the majority of parents of these fish spawned.
Incidental or unintentional catch of non-target stocks or species.
C & P
Conservation and Protection: the section of Fisheries and Oceans Canada primarily involved in enforcement.
Coded-wire tag (CWT)
A small metal tag inserted into the nose of a juvenile salmon (usually hatchery stock) prior to release or migration to the ocean. The tag has encoded information that indicates the origin and year of release of the fish.
Communal commercial licence
Issued to First Nations' organizations pursuant to the Aboriginal Communal Fishing Licences Regulations for participation in the general commercial fishery. Licences issued are equivalent to the capacity of licences that have been retired under the Aboriginal Fisheries Strategy (AFS) Licence Retirement/Allocation Transfer Program.
Communal licence
Issued to First Nations' organizations pursuant to the Aboriginal Communal Fishing Licences Regulations to carry on fishing and related activities.
The protection, maintenance, and rehabilitation of genetic diversity, species, and ecosystems to sustain biodiversity and the continuance of evolutionary and natural production processes.
Corkline to web distance
The shortest distance between the corkline of a gill net and the webbing of a gill net.
Catch per unit effort.
Cut banks
Refers to situations where the stream has undercut its bank through erosion. The habitat that is created is often heavily used by large salmonids like cutthroat and rainbow trout.
See Coded Wire Tagging
A group of salmon at a persistent spawning site or within a stream comprised of individuals that are likely to breed with each other (i.e., well mixed). A single population may include more than one deme.
Diversion rate
The percentage of returning sockeye salmon run that choose the eastern (inside) migration route around Vancouver Island when returning to the Fraser River.
A community of organisms and their physical environment interacting as an ecological unit.
Use of hatcheries, spawning channels, lake fertilization or habitat restoration to increase the survival rate or production of salmon at some stage of its life.
The number of salmon returning to the spawning grounds. In the absence of other sources of mortality, the total run-size to a system is the total catch plus the total escapement.
Exploitation rate
Expressed as a percentage, the proportion of the total return of adult salmon in a given year that die as a result of fishing activity.
The local extinction of a species.
"F" licence
Salmon category "F" licences are issued to First Nations' organizations pursuant to the Aboriginal Communal Fishing Licences Regulations to allow fishing in the commercial fishery for salmon.
The number of eggs produced by a female salmon. This term is usually indicates the average number of eggs produced by females within a population or stock.
Fish habitat
Spawning grounds and nursery, rearing, food supply, and migration areas on which fish depend directly or indirectly to carry out their life processes.
A sudden increase in stream flow usually associated with spring snowmelt but also used to refer to sudden increases in stream flow after intense rainstorms.
Salmon that have emerged from gravel, completed yolk absorption, remained in freshwater streams, and are less than a few months old.
First Nations' fishery for food, social and ceremonial use. See "communal licence" above.
Genetic diversity
The variation at the level of individual genes, and provides a mechanism for populations to adapt to their ever-changing environment. It refers to the differences in genetic make-up between distinct species and to genetic variations within a single species.
Geographic diversity
Spatial variability observed within a species. This variation may have a genetic basis and/or may reflect habitat and developmental differences expressed by the species.
Gill net
A rectangular net that does not enclose an area of water, and is used to catch fish by enmeshing them. Detailed description.
Habitat restoration
The treatment or cleanup of fish habitat that has been altered, disrupted, or degraded for the purpose of increasing its capability to sustain fish production.
Harvest rate
A term that applies to a specific fishery and is the proportion of fish vulnerable to the fishery that are caught. The harvest rate is often confused with the exploitation rate. Head water tributaries Streams located where runoff begins.
Integrated Fisheries Management Plan
Movement of salmon from the ocean to rivers and spawning streams.
Landed or landing
The transfer of catch from a licensed vessel to land (including docks and wharves).
Landing hail
The transfer of catch from a licensed vessel to land (including docks and wharves).
Managed spawning channels
Spawning channels where the entry of spawners and spawning density is controlled.
Mark - Recapture
A stock assessment program that has a primary objective of estimating the size of populations. It usually involves live-capturing salmon, marking or tagging them and releasing them back into the water at one location. At a second location, attempts are made to recapture both tagged and untagged fish. Tag and recapture data are combined to generate the population estimates.
Maximum sustainable yield (MSY)
The largest catch (yield) that can be taken on average from a population under existing environmental conditions. Catch will vary annually due to variation in a population's survival rate.
"N" licence
Salmon category "N" licences are party-based licences held by the Northern Native Fishing Corporation for vessels designated by the corporation to fish in the commercial fishery for salmon.
Natal streams
Streams of origin, where spawning takes place.
An individual who has been designated as an observer by the Regional Director General of Fisheries and Oceans Canada for Pacific Region pursuant to section 39 of the Fishery (General) Regulations.
Referring to that which takes place or exists on the licensed fishing vessel as compared to on land.
Opercular punch
A small hole made in the gill-plate (operculum) using a paper punch to indicate that the fish has been tagged. This provides a check against tag loss. Opercular punches are also used as tissue samples for DNA analysis.
Movement of juvenile salmon from natal streams/lakes to rivers and then the ocean.
Pacific Salmon
Salmon of the Pacific Ocean regions, of which there are currently eleven species recognized in the Genus Oncorhynchus. The five species managed by DFO are sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), pink (O. gorbuscha), chum (O. keta), coho (O. kisutch) and chinook (O. tshawytscha). Also in BC are steelhead (O. mykiss) and cutthroat trout (O. clarki). The remaining species include the masu (Asian distribution, O. masou), Mexican golden trout (O. chrysogaster), apache trout (O. apache), and gila trout (O. gilae). These latter three species have limited distributions in the western U.S. and northern Mexico.
A vessel licensed to pack or transport commercially caught fish.
The Pacific Fisheries Resource Conservation Council was an advisory body to the federal fisheries minister from 1999-2012.
A group of interbreeding organisms that is relatively isolated (i.e. demographically uncoupled) from other such groups and is likely adapted to the local habitat.
Productive capacity
The maximum natural capability of habitats to produce healthy fish, safe for human consumption, or to support or produce aquatic organisms on which fish depend.
Pacific Scientific Advice Review Committee
Pacific Salmon Commission: a joint Canada/U.S. commission established under the Pacific Salmon Treaty to oversee the implementation of the treaty.
Pacific Salmon Treaty: a treaty between Canada and the United States concerning the conservation, management, restoration and enhancement of pacific salmon resources.
Number of adult returns or "recruits" per brood year spawner. The average number of adult salmon produced from one salmon spawner.
The process whereby young fish are added to an adult population. Resource management Departmental actions, policies and programs affecting wild Pacific salmon directly or indirectly through their habitats and ecosystems.
Small rapid.
Riparian zone and functions
The area of vegetation near streams is known as the riparian zone. Riparian function includes the interaction of hydrologic, geomorphic, and biotic processes within the riparian environment that determine the character of the riparian zone and the influences exerted on the adjacent aquatic and terrestrial environments (e.g., temperature controls, shading, large woody debris).
Run size
The number of salmon returning to a given system in a given year.
Salmon Area
One of six areas on the Pacific coast. For salmon seine there are two areas, Salmon Area A (north coast) and Salmon Area B (south coast); for gill net there are three areas, Salmon Area C (north coast), Salmon Area D (portion of south coast) and Salmon Area E (portion of south coast and the Fraser River); for troll there are three areas, Salmon Area F (north coast), Salmon Area G (WCVI and Queen Charlotte Strait), and Salmon Area H (Johnstone and Georgia Strait).
A fish belonging to Family Salmonidae, which includes salmon, trouts, chars, whitefish and grayling.
Includes a purse seine and a drag seine. Seine nets are set in a circle around aggregations of fish; the bottom edges of the net are then drawn together into a "purse" or dragged along the bottom to prevent escape of the fish. Detailed description
Selective harvesting
A conservation-based management approach that allows for the harvest of surplus target species while aiming to minimize or avoid the harvest of species or stocks of conservation concern, or to release bycatch unharmed.
Sibling forecast
In all species of Pacific salmon but pinks, the individual salmon produced in any one spawning year mature and return to spawn in more than one subsequent year. All of the fish that return from a spawning year (the brood year) are collectively referred to as a cohort or the brood-year return. A sibling forecast uses the first returns from a cohort to predict the number of their siblings that will return in subsequent years. Generally, the first year of return is dominated by males and the last year of returns by females.
A juvenile salmon that has completed rearing in freshwater and migrates into the marine environment. A smolt becomes physiologically capable of balancing salt and water in the estuary and ocean waters. Smolts vary in size and age depending on the species of salmon.
Scale patterns analysis: a stock identification technique based on the premise that rearing areas can result in unique scale patterns that allow point-of-origin assessments to be made.
Spawning escapement
The number adult salmon that escape all fisheries and other forms of mortality and make it to the spawning grounds.
A biologically discrete population. Fish species are made up of an aggregate of stocks.
Stock assessment
The use of various statistical and mathematical calculations to make quantitative predictions about the reactions of fish populations to alternative management choices.
The migration of a mature salmon into a stream other than that in which it was born (i.e., its “home” stream). Straying is not equivalent to gene flow (the exchange of genetic material) unless the straying fish successfully reproduces in the receiving stream.
A portion of an Area, as in Section 2 of the Pacific Fishery Management Area Regulations.
Subsistence fishery
A fishery that fills a need for food purposes. In Canada, not to be confused with the First Nations fishery which is restricted to First Nations' members. In Alaska, the subsistence fishery involves both First Nations and non- First Nations Alaskan residents.
The lines described in Schedule I of the Pacific Fishery Management Area Regulations.
Total allowable catch.
Tagging site
A site where fish are tagged for later recapture. cf. Mark -Recapture and Coded Wire Tagging
Thermal regime
Temperature variances found in a stream or streams.
Total allowable catch or TAC
The amount of catch that may be taken from a stock determined by analytical procedures to achieve management objectives.
Fishing with a hook or hooks attached to a line that is towed through the water or from a vessel. Commercial trollers employ hooks and lines that are suspended from large poles extending from the fishing vessel. Detailed description
Confirming any or all of the following activities: estimating, weighing, and sampling all species, inspection of fishing records and/or interviewing the vessel master.
West Coast of Vancouver Island
The line that connects the corkline of a gill net with the webbing of a gill net, the length of the weedline is also called the "corkline to web distance".
Wild salmon
Salmon are considered "wild" if they have spent their entire life cycle in the wild and originate from parents that were also produced by natural spawning and continuously lived in the wild.
Yukon River Salmon Agreement
Yukon Salmon Sub-Committee established pursuant to the UFA.
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